Battle lines are being drawn in Norway as the government prepares to open offshore acreage to exploration and extraction of seabed minerals.

The debate pits environmentalists against the business of natural resources extraction, a familiar scene for citizens of the oil and gas producing nation. But the issues in this case are less clear-cut.

Green activists are pushing for a rapid transition to renewable and clean energy. But many of the technologies to enable that transition require metals and other resources that must be mined, whether at sea or on land, and their extraction will inevitably have an impact on the environment.