Chinese oil operators are enthusiastic about deploying carbon dioxide for enhanced recovery technology at mature fields, but high costs, the availability of CO2 and the reliability of long-term storage are barriers to wider application.

Oil companies have reported high costs to operate CO2-EOR projects and to build pipelines, and have yet to implement solutions to address corrosion and leaks.

China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has put the cost at 600 yuan ($89) per tonne of CO2 captured.

Transporting CO2 by tank vehicles in China is also costly.