The forces roiling the oil and gas industry are especially felt in the Persian Gulf region, where oil has long provided a foundation for national economies.

As in much of the world, Covid-19 and tumbling demand have upended project plans. But in the Middle East, the crisis has also affected cross-border relations, slammed state budgets and brought new twists to complex regional politics.

How the petroleum powerhouses respond to current challenges could have repercussions for years to come.

In this feature, Upstream correspondents Nassir Shirkhani and Nishant Ugal explore the key issues facing oil and gas operators in the Persian Gulf.

1: Persian Gulf states feel the pinch after double hit

Saudi Arabia and oil-producing neighbours face down unprecedented financial pain

2: Covid-19 heightens push to settle conflict

Oil market turmoil is accelerating a thaw in Qatar-Saudi relations

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3: Iraq's struggles mount

Lack of investment, project delays and flaring pose challenges for Opec's second-biggest producer

4: Iranian scene on a roll despite US sanctions

Oil and gas expansion plans take shape as country bets on eventual end to restrictions

5: Adnoc pressing ahead with gas drive

Despite weak market, state player moving projects forward with aim to shore up energy independence

6: Hail & Ghasha price tag gives partners pause for thought

Adnoc may look to cut costs but insists giant project and other sour gas developments are progressing