The European Union and most of its individual member states have responded to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the Kremlin’s use of natural gas as an economic weapon by showing a determination to end reliance on what they regard as an unreliable supplier.

The European Commission — the EU’s executive arm — swept through measures that would drastically reduce imports of Russian gas, as well as ending imports of Russian crude.

Russia responded by squeezing supplies faster and further that would be the case under EU sanctions, including the effective closing of the Nord Stream 1 gas pipeline, which was later put out of action entirely last September after being damaged by explosions.