Carbon capture technology works and is being demonstrated at scale around the world — at natural gas processing plants, oil refineries, fertiliser plants, and most recently power stations.

However, established technologies are energy intensive and expensive, so research efforts across the UK and beyond are directed at more efficient technologies.

Most capture systems at scale are based on amine solvents that temporarily react with carbon dioxide from flue gases.

Once heated to around 120 degrees Celsius, the CO2 is liberated in a pure enough form to be sent to storage or be used, and the regenerated solvent is cooled to begin the cycle again.