Out of the top ten oil producing countries last year, Iraq - with 3.47 billion barrels of oil per day in output - ranked ninth out of 198 countries on the latest Corruption Risk Index (CRI) produced by UK-based global risk analytics firm Verisk Maplecroft.

“High” and “extreme” corruption risks were reported in Iran (which ranked 26) and Kuwait (109), research showed.

Saudi Arabia, the world’s second-largest oil producer last year after the US - with 11.3 billion bpd – was also ranked as “high risk”, according to the index.