OPINION: Shell has probably faced some of the most intense pressures among international oil companies when it comes to demands for the scaling back of fossil fuel investments.

The supermajor has grappled to decipher the deeper messages among protesters and investors, and thought twice about investing in its traditional backyard in the North Sea as a result.

Its commitment to to net zero emissions place it among those European supermajors looking to invest heavily in renewables.

But Shell has been prepared to move shrewdly for the kind of oil and gas assets that will remain competitive even when overall demand for fossil fuels begins its predicted descent.