OPINION: The chaos in Kazakhstan that has left more than 160 dead and nearly 8000 protesters in prison is another salutary reminder of what can happen due to steep energy price rises.

The unrest has only been brought under control by the arrival of foreign, mainly Russian, troops and may have been an attempted palace coup by senior opponents, given the mysterious purge that took place afterwards.

It was probably rooted in a wide set of popular grievances stemming from an autocratic government with a sluggish record of halting corruption.