The first signs of insurgency in Mozambique's Cabo Delgado province emerged about 10 years ago, according to Pedro Esteves, manager of African Monitor, a Lisbon-based organisation that champions sustainable development on the continent.

Incipient radicalisation became easier through the internet and emerged at a time when huge gas discoveries were being made off Mozambique’s north coast.

Commenting on the current situation at a recent Chatham House event, Esteves, who previously worked for Portugal’s intelligence services, says: “It’s a small step from radicalisation to jihad.”